KIKO BREED RESEARCH
Richard Browning, Jr., Ph.D research article:
EVALUATION OF THREE MEAT GOAT BREEDS FOR DOE FITNESS AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES
SPRINGFEST 2005 Presentation by Richard Browning, Jr., Ph.D. (TSU)
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Preliminary assessment of Boer and Kiko does as maternal lines for kid performance under humid, subtropical conditions: Click here to see study
Joint Annual Meeting Of American Society Of Animal Science
July, 2004 ; St. Louis, Missouri
Journal Of Animal Science
Volume 82, Supplement 1
656 Influence of maternal breed on meat goat carcass characteristics.
R. Browning, Jr., C. Chisley, O. Phelps, S.H. Kebe, B. Donnelly, M. Byars, and T. Payton
Tennessee State University, Nashville
USDA Agricultural Marketing Service, Baton Rouge, LA
Spanish x Boer (n = 16) and Spanish x Kiko (n = 18) wethers (7 mo) and bucklings (5 mo) were harvested under USDA inspection to evaluate the effect of dam breed on carcass traits of crossbred kids. Boer and Kiko dams, respectively, originated from five and seven seedstock farms. Each dam was purebred or fullblood (93.75% to 100%). Traits of interest included live weight and conformation score, carcass grade, carcass weight, dressing percentage, wholesale cut weights, and edible meat yield. Live weight tended to differ (P = 0.08) between Boer (22.96 +/- 0.94 kg) and Kiko kids (25.6 +/- 1 kg). Hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, and dressing percentage tended to be greater (P </- 0.1) for Kiko than for Boer F1 kids. Kids out of Boer dams had similar (P = 0.29) live conformation scores as their contemporaries out of Kiko dams. Carcass grade scores for Kiko F1 tended to be better (P = 0.08) than those for Boer F1 kids. Paired shoulder and hind leg primal cuts were heavier (P < 0.05) for Kiko (1.66 +/- 0.08 kg; 3.05 +/- 0.14 kg) compared to Boer (1.41 +/- 0.08 kg; 2.59 +/- 0.13 kg). Paired foreleg and loin weights for Kiko (2.11 +/- 0.1 kg; 1.5 +/- 0.09 kg) tended to be heavier (P</- 0.10) than for Boer (1.85 +/- 0.1 kg; 1.28 +/- 0.09 kg). Rib weights were not different (P > 0.2) between breeds of dam. However, when wholesale cut weights were adjusted for carcass weight, only the hind leg tended to be heavier (P = 0.06) for Kiko-cross kids than for Boer-cross kids. Proportional edible meat yields and meat to bone ratios from shoulder, loin, and hind leg were not affected (P > 0.15) by breed of dam. Preliminary results suggest that breed of dam may affect carcass traits from commonly sired crossbred kids
Animal Society of Animal Science
Southern Division; Jan 31-Feb. 4, 2003; Mobile, AL
103 Growth rates of Boer and Kiko crossbred wethers fed endophyte-infected tall fescue or orchardgrass. R. Browning, Jr.*, Y. G. Myles, M. Byars, S. H. Kebe, T. Payton, E. Lane, C. Johnson, D. A. Young, and D. Coleman, Tennessee State University, Nashville.
This study was conducted to begin assessing how endophyte-infected tall fescue (TF) might affect meat goat performance. A majority of Tennessee goat producers indicated in a survey that tall fescue covers the improved pastures they use to graze goats (Leite-Browning et al., 2001; J. Anim. Sci. 80[Suppl. 2]:27). Three-quarter Boer (n = 22) and 3/4 Kiko (n = 15) yearling wethers were fed in drylot over three periods. During the pretrial period (January-March), all goats were provided orchardgrass (OG) hay for ad libitum consumption and were fed 455 g/d of a concentrate supplement. In Trial 1 (April-June), wethers within each breed were paired by weight and evenly divided into groups receiving TF seed and OG seed diets. Seed (227 g/d) was carried in 682 g/d of the concentrate supplement. Both groups were provided OG hay for ad libitum consumption. No breed x diet interaction was detected in Trial 1. Pretrial growth rates did not differ between TF and OG-fed goats (75 vs 78 ± 7 g/d). The TF seed diet lowered (P < 0.01) ADG by 32% over 8 weeks compared to the OG seed diet (102 vs 150 ± 7 g/d). For Trial 2 (June-August), half of the wethers within each breed were switched between TF and OG diets. Experimental diets in Trial 2 were in the form of TF or OG hay supplemented with 227 g/d of concentrate without TF or OG seed. Growth rates during Trial 1 did not differ between TF and OG-fed goats as grouped for Trial 2 (123 vs 128 ± 9 g/d). There was no breed x diet interaction detected in Trial 2. The TF hay diet lowered (P = 0.10) growth rates by 33% over 8 weeks compared to the OG hay diet (40 vs 60 ± 9 g/d). Across the three observation periods, percentage Kiko wethers had higher (P < 0.01) growth rates compared to percentage Boer wethers (214 vs 156 ± 10 g/d). This pilot study demonstrated the potential of endophyte-infected tall fescue to significantly lower the performance of meat goat wethers.
109 Evaluation of Boer and Kiko goats for doe-kid performance to weaning.
R. Browning, Jr.*, S.H. Kebe, and M. Byars, Tennessee State University
Boer (n = 30) and Kiko (n =27) yearling does and doelings were exposed to Spanish bucks in mixed breed, single-sire breeding groups in the fall of 2002 to evaluate doe and kid performance.
Each doe was purebred or fullblood (93.75 to 100%). Each breed of doe was represented by at least six seedstock farms and eight sires.
At kidding, 25 Boer and 23 Kiko does produced at least one live kid. Boer dams at kidding were heavier (P=0.06) than Kiko dams (48.49 + 0.125 vs 45.04 + 1.32 kg). Litter size and litter weight at birth did not differ (P>0.5) between Boer (1.92 + 0.12 kids. 6.05 + 0.31 kg) and Kiko dams and Kiko dams (1.82 + 0.12 kids, 5.90 + 0.33 kg). Kid birth weights were similar (P = 0-.4) between 48 Boer and 42 Kiko F1 kids (3.21 + 0.09 vs 3.30 + 0.08 Kg).
Litter size and sex of kid affected (P < 0.01) birth weights. Each litter type differed (P < 0.001) for kid birth weights (singles = 3.84 + 0.14, twins = 3.24 + 0.06, triplets = 2.67 + 0.13 kg). Bucklings at birth were heavier than doelings (3.39 + 0.08 vs 3.11 + 0.09 kg). Bucklings were not castrated before weaning.
Twenty Boer and 21 Kiko dams reared at least on kid to weaning at 14 wk of age. Boer and Kiko dam body weights at weaning did not differ (P = 0.35; 42.42 vs 40.75 + 1.25 kg). Litter size at weaning was lower (P=0.05) and litter weaning weight was lower (P = 0.02) for Boer (1.58 + 0.09 kids, 26.48 + 1.51 kg) than for Kiko dams (1.85 + 0.09 kids, 31.73 + 1.52 kg). The ratio of litter weight weaned to doe weight at weaning was greater (P= 0.01) for Kiko compared to Boer dams (78.1 vs 63.9 + 4%).
Preweaning ADG and weaning weights were greater (P < 0.05) for 38 Kiko F1 kids (141.3 + 4.63 g/d, 16.90 + 0.50 kg) compared to 32 Boer F1 kids (127.3 + 6.61 g/d, 15.36 + 0.71 kg). Bucklings had higher (P<0.01) preweaning ADG and weaning weights (146.2 + 4.8 g/d, 17.39 + 0.51 kg) than doelings (122.5 + 6.2 g/d, 14.88 + 0.67 kg). Kiko does tended (P=0.10 to wean a higher kid crop percent and more (P=0.07 litter weight per doe exposed (125 + 19%, 21.55 + 3.05 kg) compared to Boer (86 + 19%, 14.77 + 2.96 kg).
Results suggest that meat goat breeds differ for doe-kid performance under southeastern US conditions.
**( Presented in Tulsa, OK -Small Ruminant Production I – Genetics and Breed Evaluation
Small Ruminant Information Exchange Group)**
Abstract #77 Animal Society of Animal Science (Southern Section Meeting) Orlando, Florida February, 2006
Doe-kid performance to weaning among three meat goat breeds (Year 2).
R. Browning, Jr.*, B. Donnelly, T. Payton, P. Pandya, W. Hendrixson, M. Byars. Tennessee State University, Nashville - Agricultural Research Institute.
Boer (BR; n = 58), Kiko (KK; n = 51), and Spanish (SP; n = 50) does were mated to 10 BR, 7 KK, and 3 SP bucks in single-sire groups using a complete 3-breed diallel to assess doe-kid performance on southern US pasture. At spring kidding, 43 BR, 47 KK, and 45 SP does produced at least one live kid. Kidding rate (i.e., does kidding) was lower (P < 0.04) for BR (74.1%) than for SP (90%) and KK (92.2%) does. Dam weights at kidding were lower (P < 0.01) for SP (42.7 ± 1.1 kg) than for KK and BR (48.1 and 50.2 ± 1.1 kg, respectively). Litter size (1.91 kids/litter) and litter weight (6.08 kg/litter) at birth were not affected by dam breed. Litter ADG was greater (P = 0.01) on KK (258 ± 12 g/d) than on BR (217 ± 13 g/d) dams with SP dams intermediate (231 ± 13 g/d). By weaning at 3 mo, 39 BR, 44 KK, and 41 SP dams had reared at least one kid. Weaning rate (i.e., does weaning kids) was lower (P = 0.02) for BR (67.2%) than for KK (86.3%) does, SP were intermediate at 82%. Dam weights at weaning were lower (P < 0.01) for SP (43.3 ± 1.1 kg) than for BR (51.3 ± 1.2 kg), KK were intermediate at 48.5 ± 1.1 kg. Litter size at weaning was affected (P = 0.04) by dam breed as BR (1.46 ± 0.1 kids) weaned smaller litters than KK and SP (1.72 and 1.74 ± 0.1 kids). Litter weaning weights (31.82 kg) were not affected by dam breed. The ratio of litter weight to doe weight at weaning was greater (P < 0.01) for SP and KK (69 and 67 ± 3%, respectively) compared to BR dams (54 ± 3%). Kid attrition rate was higher (P = 0.01) for BR (26.3%) compared with KK dams (12.5%), SP were intermediate (15.7%). Over the production year, doe attrition rate was higher (P < 0.01) for BR (17.2%) than for KK (2%), SP were intermediate (10%). As measures of whole herd performance based on all does exposed to bucks, BR does weaned a lower (P < 0.01) kid crop percent (96 ± 10%) compared to SP and KK (136 and 147 ± 11%, respectively). Litter weight weaned per doe exposed was lower (P < 0.01) for BR (18.4 ± 1.8 kg) compared to KK does (27.5 ± 2.0 kg), SP were intermediate (23.0 ± 2.0 kg). Similar to Year 1, results here suggest that meat goat breeds differ for doe-kid performance under southeastern US conditions.
2005 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science. July 24-28, Cincinnati, Ohio
Fitness indicators among Boer, Kiko, and Spanish does managed on pasture in central Tennessee.
R. Browning, Jr.*, T. Payton, B. Donnelly, P. Pandya, M. L. Leite-Browning, W. Hendrixson, S. Kebe, M. Byars; IAgER-Tennessee State University
Boer (BR; n = 42), Kiko (KK; n = 38), and Spanish (SP; n = 47) straightbred does representing a broad base of within-breed genetic lines were managed together on pasture from September 2003 to August 2004. Three-quarters of each breed were mated in October and the remainder bred in December. Herd health records were analyzed by GLM or P2 for the 2003-2004 production year to begin assessing animal fitness under the prevailing production environment. Does were treated for hoof scald and hoof rot upon observed lameness. The herd was not vaccinated for hoof rot. Breeds differed (P < 0.01) for lameness cases treated during the year. Boer required more (P < 0.01) treatments for lameness (1.77 ± 0.22 cases/doe) than SP (0.60 ± 0.22 cases/doe) or KK (0.47 ± 0.24 cases/doe). A higher (P < 0.01) frequency of BR (52.3%) required multiple hoof treatments per year compared with SP (19.2%) or KK (10.5%). Does were dewormed as a group in January (ivermectin) and individually at parturition (moxidectin). Does kidding in March were also dewormed as a group in June (moxidectin). Individual does presenting clinical symptoms of internal parasitism during the year received additional moxidectin treatments. Breeds differed (P < 0.01) for extra anthelmintic treatment. Additional dewormings were more numerous for BR (0.53 ± 0.09 cases/doe) than for SP (0.11 ± 0.09 cases/doe) or KK (0.07 ± 0.10 cases/doe). A higher (P < 0.01) frequency of BR (40.5%) received extra dewormings during the year compared to SP (6.4%) or KK (2.6%). Fecal egg counts (FEC) were determined on a random subset of does (19 BR, 15 KK, 18 SP) across kidding groups as kids approached 3 mo of age (June and August). Breed affected (P = 0.04) log transformed FEC with values higher (P < 0.04) for BR than for SP. Geometric mean FEC for BR, KK and SP were 606 ± 19, 307 ± 12, and 237 ± 9 eggs/g, respectively. Lower frequencies (P < 0.01) of BR does weaned kids at 3 mo (76%) and survived though the production year (79%) compared with SP (96%, 98%) and KK does (100%, 100%). Preliminary results suggest a difference among meat goat breeds for fitness under southeastern US conditions.